Definition: A nearly-balanced tree that uses an extra bit per node to maintain balance. No leaf is more than twice as far from the root as any other.
Formal Definition: A red-black tree with n internal nodes has height at most 2log2(n+1).
Also known as symmetric binary B-tree.
Generalization (I am a kind of ...)
Specialization (... is a kind of me.)
Aggregate child (... is a part of or used in me.)
left rotation, right rotation.
See also height-balanced tree.
Note: The extra bit "colors" the node red or black, hence the name. These were called "symmetric binary B-trees" when first invented. The red/black naming and explanation was given by Guibas and Sedgewick.
An AVL tree is at least as balanced as a red-black tree.
Rudolf Bayer, Symmetric Binary B-Trees: Data Structures and Maintenance Algorithms, Acta Informatica, 1:290-306, 1972.
Leo J. Guibas and Robert Sedgewick, A Dichromatic Framework for Balanced Trees, Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, pages 8-21. IEEE Computer Society, 1978.
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Entry modified 13 April 2015.
HTML page formatted Tue Feb 12 10:57:43 2019.
Cite this as:
Paul E. Black, "red-black tree", in Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures [online], Vreda Pieterse and Paul E. Black, eds. 13 April 2015. (accessed TODAY) Available from: https://www.nist.gov/dads/HTML/redblack.html