(data structure)

Definition: A data structure equivalent to a binary tree that is "opened" so that some node is accessible. It consists of a pair: the current node, along with information to reconstruct the tree. Reconstruction information is called the path or context. A move-to-left-child operation returns the left subtree, along with a new path, which has (i) a Left value, (ii) the current node, (iii) the right subtree, and (iv) any previous path. A similar operation moves to the right child. A move-up operation returns a tree rebuilt from the path information and the current node, along with the previous path.

Note: In functional programming languages, a zipper acts as a "pointer" into a tree. The name comes from visualizing the move-to-child operation as unzipping a tree. (Instead of two halves, though, move-to-child keeps the pieces in a k-ary tree: the path.)

Author: PEB

More information

A message on Using zippers to handle huge trees.

Gérard Huet, The Zipper, Journal of Functional Programming, 7(5):549-554, 1997.

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Entry modified 29 June 2021.
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Paul E. Black, "zipper", in Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures [online], Paul E. Black, ed. 29 June 2021. (accessed TODAY) Available from: