# knapsack problem

(classic problem)

**Definition:**
Given items of different values and volumes, find the most valuable set of items that fit in a knapsack of fixed volume.

**Formal Definition:** There is a knapsack of capacity c > 0 and N items. Each item has value v_{i} > 0 and weight w_{i} > 0. Find the selection of items (δ_{i} = 1 if selected, 0 if not) that fit, ∑_{i=1}^{N} δ_{i}w_{i} ≤ c, and the total value, ∑_{i=1}^{N} δ_{i}v_{i}, is maximized.

**Also known as** 0-1 knapsack problem, binary knapsack problem.

**See also**
*fractional knapsack problem*, *unbounded knapsack problem*, *bin packing problem*, *cutting stock problem*, *NP-complete*.

*Note:
Also called 0-1 or binary knapsack (each item may be taken (1) or not (0)), in contrast to the **fractional knapsack problem*. Also called bounded knapsack (BKP) because there are a limited number of items, in contrast to the *unbounded knapsack problem*. The *decision problem* is, given items of different values and volumes and a knapsack, is there a subset that exceeds a certain value? The decision problem is *NP-complete*.

Author: PEB

## Implementation

(Fortran and Pascal). GAMS Class G2c3 (Fortran).
## More information

From xkcd 287 by Randall Munroe. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License.

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Entry modified 5 December 2016.

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Paul E. Black, "knapsack problem", in
*Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures* [online], Vreda Pieterse and Paul E. Black, eds. 5 December 2016. (accessed TODAY)
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