Definition: The class of languages for which a membership computation by a probabilistic Turing machine halts in polynomial time with the right answer (accept or reject) at least 2/3 of the time. "BPP" means "Bounded error Probability in Polynomial" time.

Also known as bounded error probability in polynomial time.

See also ZPP, RP, NP, complexity class.

Note: By repeating the run, the chance of error may be arbitrarily reduced.

After [Hirv01, page 19].

Author: PEB

More information

Scott Aaronson's Complexity Zoo

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Entry modified 5 January 2021.
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Cite this as:
Paul E. Black, "BPP", in Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures [online], Paul E. Black, ed. 5 January 2021. (accessed TODAY) Available from: