(data structure)

**Definition:**
A way to represent a *multiway tree* as a *binary tree*. The leftmost *child*, c, of a *node*, n, in the multiway tree is the left child, c', of the corresponding node, n', in the binary tree. The immediately right *sibling* of c is the right child of c'.

**Formal Definition:** A multiway tree T can be represented by a corresponding binary tree B. Let {n_{1},..., n_{k}} be nodes of the multiway tree, T. Let {n'_{1},..., n'_{k}} be nodes of the corresponding binary tree B. Node n_{k} corresponds to n'_{k}. In particular, nodes n_{k} and n'_{k} have the same labels and if n_{k} is the root of T, n'_{k} is the root of B. Connections correspond as follows:

- If n
_{l}is the leftmost child of n_{k}, n'_{l}is the left child of n'_{k}. (If n_{k}has no children, n'_{k}has no left child.) - If n
_{s}is the next (immediately right) sibling of n_{k}, n'_{s}is the right child of n'_{k}.

**Also known as** first child-next sibling binary tree, doubly-chained tree, filial-heir chain.

**Aggregate parent** (I am a part of or used in ...)

*multiway tree*, *k-ary tree*, *Schorr-Waite graph marking algorithm*.

*Note:
See [Knuth97, 1:333, Sect. 2.3.2]. *

The *binary tree* representation of a *multiway tree* or *k-ary tree* is based on first child-next sibling representation of the tree. In this representation every node is linked with its leftmost child and its next (right nearest) sibling.

Let us see one example. Consider the following multiway tree

1This tree can be represented in first child-next sibling manner as follows

/|\

/ | \

/ | \

2 3 4

/ \ |

5 6 7

/ \

8 9

1Now, if we look at the first child-next sibling representation of the tree closely, we will see that it forms a binary tree. To see this better, we can rotate every next-sibling edge 45 degrees clockwise. After that we get the following binary tree:

/

/

/

2---3---4

/ /

5---6 7

/

8---9

1This is binary tree representation of the given (multiway) tree.

/

2

/ \

5 3

\ \

6 4

/

7

/

8

\

9

Go to the Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures home page.

If you have suggestions, corrections, or comments, please get in touch with Paul Black.

Entry modified 20 November 2008.

HTML page formatted Fri Feb 23 10:06:07 2018.

Cite this as:

Alen Lovrencic and Paul E. Black, "binary tree representation of trees", in
*Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures* [online], Vreda Pieterse and Paul E. Black, eds. 20 November 2008. (accessed TODAY)
Available from: https://www.nist.gov/dads/HTML/binaryTreeRepofTree.html